Major Medical Plans
Major Medical Health Insurance is a type of medical insurance developed for protection against a broad range of catastrophic medical expenses, incurred in or out of the hospital. Major medical expense benefits are typically subject to a deductible and usually a coinsurance is involved. With Major Medical Health Insurance it may contain limits on specific types of charges, like room and board but covers a major part of charges for hospital, doctor, private nurses, medical appliances, prescribed out-of-hospital treatment, drugs and medicines.
In summary, Major Medical Health Insurance Insurance covers most serious medical expenses up to a maximum limit, after a deductible and coinsurance provision. Major Medical Health Insurance is typically used as a complement to hospital/medical/surgical coverages.
Cafeteria/Flexible Spending Plans are employer-sponsored plans that allow the employee to design his or her own employee benefit package, choosing between one or more employee benefits and cash. Several types of Flexible Benefits or Cafeteria Plans are used by employers, including a pre-tax conversion plan, multiple option pre-tax conversion plan, medical plans plus flexible spending accounts, and employer credit cafeteria plans. For more information about these choices, contact your employee benefits department.
Indemnity Health Plans allow you to choose your health care providers. You can go to any doctor, hospital or other provider for a set monthly premium. The plan reimburses you or your health care provider on the basis of services rendered. You may be required to meet a deductible and pay a percentage of each bill. However, there is also often an annual limit on out-of-pocket expenses, so that once an individual or family reaches the limit, the insurance covers the remaining eligible medical expenses in full. Indemnity plans sometimes impose restrictions on covered services and may require prior authorization for hospital care or other expensive services.
“Basic and Essential” Health Plans provide limited health insurance benefits at a considerably lower cost. When buying such a plan, it is extremely important to read the policy description carefully because these plans don’t cover some basic treatments, such as chemotherapy, certain prescriptions and maternity care. Furthermore, rates vary considerably because, unlike indemnity plans or a managed care option, premiums are community rated and are based on age, gender, health status, occupation or geographic location.
Health Savings Accounts (HSA) are a recent alternative to traditional health insurance plans. HSAs are basically a savings product designed to offer individuals a different way to pay for their health care. HSAs enable you to pay for current health expenses and save for future qualified medical and retiree health expenses on a tax-free basis. Instead of paying a premium, you establish a tax-free savings account that covers your out-of-pocket medical expenses. This means that you own and control the money in your HSA. You make all decisions about how to spend the money without relying on a third party or a health insurer. You also decide what types of investments to make with the money in the account in order to make it grow. However, if you sign up for an HSA, you are generally required to buy a High Deductible Health Plan as well.
High-Deductible Health Plans (HDHP) are sometimes referred to as catastrophic health insurance coverage. An HDHP is an inexpensive health insurance plan that kicks in only after a high deductible is met of at least $1,000 for an individual or $2,000 for a family.
Managed Care Options
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) offer access to an extensive network of participating physicians, hospitals and other health care professionals and facilities. You choose a primary care doctor from a list provided by the HMO and this doctor coordinates your health care. You must contact your primary care doctor to be referred to a specialist. Generally, you pay fewer out-of-pocket expenses with an HMO, but you are often charged a fee or co-payment for services such as doctor visits or prescriptions.
Point-of-Service (POS) plans are an indemnity-type option in which the primary care doctors in the POS plan usually make referrals to other providers within the plan. If a doctor makes a referral out of the plan, the plan pays all or most of the bill. However, if you refer yourself to an outside provider, the service is covered by the plan, but you will be required to pay co-insurance.
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO) charge on a fee-for-service basis. The participating doctors, hospitals and health care providers are paid by the insurer on a negotiated, discounted fee schedule. Costs are lower if you use in-network healthcare services, but you have the option of going out-of-network. If you choose an out-of-network provider, you are generally required to pay the difference between what the provider charges and what the plan pays.
Government-Sposored Health Insurance
Medicaid is a federal/state public assistance program created in 1965. It is administered by the states for people whose income and resources are insufficient to pay for health care or private insurance. All states have Medicaid programs, though eligibility levels and coverage benefits vary.
Medicare is a federal government program for people 65 and older, or those with certain disabilities, that pays part of the costs associated with hospitalization, surgery, doctors’ bills, home health care and skilled-nursing care.
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is administered at the state level and provides health care to low-income children whose parents do not qualify for Medicaid. SCHIP may be known by different names in different states.
Military Health Care includes TRICARE/CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services) and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs) as well as care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).
State-specific Plans are available for low-income uninsured individuals. These plans are known by different names in different states.
Indian Health Service (IHS) is a Department of Health and Human Services program offering medical assistance to eligible American Indians at HIS facilities. In addition, the HIS helps pay the cost of selected health care services provided at non-HIS facilities.
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)
What is a Health Savings Account (HSA)?
A Health Savings Account is an alternative to traditional health insurance; it is a savings product that offers a different way for consumers to pay for their health care. HSAs enable you to pay for current health expenses and save for future qualified medical and retiree health expenses on a tax-free basis.
You must be covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) to be able to take advantage of HSAs. An HDHP generally costs less than what traditional health care coverage costs, so the money that you save on insurance can therefore be put into the Health Savings Account.
You own and you control the money in your HSA. Decisions on how to spend the money are made by you without relying on a third party or a health insurer. You will also decide what types of investments to make with the money in the account in order to make it grow.
What is a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP)?
You must have an HDHP if you want to open an HSA. Sometimes referred to as a catastrophic health insurance plan, an HDHP is an inexpensive health insurance plan that generally doesn't pay for the first several thousand dollars of health care expenses (i.e., your deductible) but will generally cover you after that. Of course, your HSA is available to help you pay for the expenses your plan does not cover.
For 2008, in order to qualify to open an HSA, your HDHP minimum deductible must be at least $1,100 (self-only coverage) or $2,200 (family coverage). The annual out-of-pocket (including deductibles and co-pays) for 2008 cannot exceed $5,600 (self-only coverage) or $11,200 (family coverage). HDHPs can have first dollar coverage (no deductible) for preventive care and apply higher out-of-pocket limits (and copays & coinsurance) for non-network services.
How can I get a Health Savings Account?
Consumers can sign up for HSAs with banks, credit unions, insurance companies and other approved companies. Your employer may also set up a plan for employees as well.
How much does an HSA cost?
An HSA is not something you purchase; it's a savings account into which you can deposit money on a tax-preferred basis. The only product you purchase with an HSA is a High Deductible Health Plan, an inexpensive plan that will cover you should your medical expenses exceed the funds you have in your HSA. However, HSA trustees often will charge fees for their services.